CHAPS is a non-denaturing zwitterionic surfactant which combines the advantages of bile acids and alkyl sulfobetains. It was successfully used for the solubilization and investigation of many integral membrane proteins whilst retaining their native structure so that it is even recommendable as a screening agent.

CHAPS is of considerable importance as a surfactant for the isolation of membrane-bound receptors. Its high CMC together with its cholesterol-analog zwitterionic structure enables CHAPS to gently solubilize a great number of receptors - e.g. those of serotonin, benzodiazepine, adenosine, DHP, VIP, sarafotoxin and endothelin.

CHAPS is also frequently used for the examination of other membrane proteins like enzymes, ion channels or photoreaction units.

It is a very versatile product and can be considered for chromatographic and electrophoretic protein separations as well as for enzyme immunoassays.

Synonyms: 3-[(3-Cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate

CAS registry number: [75621-03-3]

Molecular formula: C32H58N2O7S

Relative molecular mass (Mr): 614.9

Classification: Zwitterionic surfactant

Literature specifications:
•    Critical micellar concentration (CMC): 4.2 – 6.5  mM
•    Aggregation number (Na): 9 – 10
•    Critical micellar temperature (CMT): < 0 °C
•    Partial specific volume (v): 0.81 cm3/g
•    pH 2 – 12: net charge = 0


Solubilization and Characterization of Receptors

Lohse, M.J., Elger, B., Lindenborn-Fotinos, J., Klotz, K.N. a. Schwabe, U. (1988) Separation of solubilized A2 adenosine receptors of human platelets from non-receptor [3H]NECA binding sites by gel filtration. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 337, 64-8.

Ambar, I., Kloog, Y. a. Sokolovsky, M. (1989) Solubilization of endothelin/sarafotoxin receptors in an active binding form. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 170, 119-20.

Awad, M. a. Gavish, M. (1989) Solubilization of peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites from cat cerebral cortex. J. Neurochem. 52, 1880-5.

El Mestikawy, S., Taussig, D., Gozlan, H., Emerit., M.B., Ponchant, M. a. Hamon, M. (1989) Chromatographic analyses of the serotonin 5 HTIA receptor solubilized from the rat hippocampus. J. Neurochem. 55, 1555-66.

Faussner, A., Haasemann, M., Klier, C., Heinz-Erian, P., Mueller-Esterl, W. a. Roscher, A., (1989) Attempts to purify bradykinin receptor binding sites from cultured human fibroblasts. Ber. Kernforschungsanlage Jiilich, Juel-Conf¬-73, 129-31.

Guendouz, F., Blanchardie, P., Denis, M., Orsonneau, J.L. a. Lustenberger, P. (1989) Occurrence of glucocorticoid binding sites in solubilized microsomes from rat liver. J. Steroid Biochem. 34, 325-30.

Guijarro, L., Couvineau, A., Calvo, J.R. a. Laburthe, M. (1989) Solubilization of active and stable receptors for vasoactive intestinal pep¬tide from rat liver. Regul. Pept. 25, 37-50.

Guijarro,L., Couvineau, A., Calvo, J.R. a. Laburthe, M. (1989) Solubilization of active VIP receptors from rat liver. Collog. 1NSERM, 174 (Forum Pept., 2nd, 1988), 141-5.

Hamilton, S.L., Hawkes, M.J., Brush, K., Cook, R., Chang, R.J. a. Smilowitz, H.M. (1989) Subunit composition of the purified dihydropyridine binding protein from skeletal muscle. Biochemistry 28, 7820-8.

Helmke, S.M. a. Cooper, D.M.F. (1989) Solubilization of stable adenosine Al receptors from rat brain. Biochem. J. 257, 413-8.

Kline, T., Park, H. a. Meyerson, L.R. (1989) CHAPS solubilization of a G-protein sensitive 5-HT1A receptor from bovine hippocampus. Life Sci. 45, 1997-2005.

Olah, M.E., Jacobson, K.A. a. Stiles, G.L. (1989) Affinity chromatography of the bovine cerebral cortex A1  adenosine receptor. FEBS Lett. 257, 292-6.

Parini, A. a. Graham, R.M. (1989) Glycerol, sodium phosphate, and sodium chloride permit the solubilization and partial purification of rat hepatic α1-receptors by 3-(3-cholamidylpro¬pyl)dimethylammonio-1-propanesulfonate. Anal. Biochem. 176, 375-81.

Bristow, D.R. a. Martin, I.L. (1990) Biochemical characterization of an isolated and functionally reconstituted y-aminobutyric acid/benzodia¬zepine receptor. J. Neurochem. 54, 751-61.

Naldini, L., Cirillo, D., Moody, T.W., Comoglio, P.M., Schlessinger, J. a. Kris, R. (1990) Solubilization of the receptor for the neuropeptide gastrin-releasing peptide (bombesin) with functional ligand binding properties. Biochemistry 29, 5153-60.

Shreeve, S.M. (1990) Effect of detergent solubilization on the affinity of some quinazoline derivatives for the α1-adrenoceptor. Eur. J. Pharmacol., Mol. Pharmacol. Sect. 188, 71-80.

Solubilization and Characterization of Enzymes

Johnson, B. C. a. Girardot, J.M. (1987) Requirement of antichaotropic reagents for activity of reduced vitamin K quinone-dependent en¬zyme. Chem. Scr. 27A, 175-86.

lsa, M., Cumps J., Fossoul, C. a. Atassi, G. (1988) Solubilization of cytochromes P-450 from hu¬man liver microsomes by various classes of detergents. J. Pharm. Belg. 43, 246-57.

Edwards, E.W. a. Murphy, D.J. (1989) Partial purification and properties of a microsomal lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase from oilseed rape. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 17, 684-5.

Lawson, S.G., Mason, T.L., Sabin, R.D., Sloan, M.E., Drake, R.R., Haley, B.E. a. Wasserman, B.P. (1989) UDP-glucose: (1,3)-ß-glucan synthase from Daucus carota L. Characterization, photoaffinity labeling, and solubilization. Plant Physiol. 90, 101-8.

Loe, D.W., Glover, J.R., Head, S., a. Sharom F. J., (1989) Solubilization, characterization, and detergent interaction of lymphocyte 5 '-nucleotidase. Biochem. Cell Biol. 67, 214-23.

Kierdaszuk, B. a. Eriksson, S. (1990) Selective inactivation of the deoxyadenosine phosphory¬lating activity of pure human deoxycytidine kinase: stabilization of different forms of the enzyme by substrates and biological deter¬gents. Biochemistry 29, 4109-14.

Murphy, A.S. et al. (2002) Identification, purification, and molecular cloning of N-1-naphthylphthalimide acid-binding plasma membrane-associated aminopeptidases from Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 128, 935-50.

Solubilization and Characterization of Photosystems

Hara, M., Namba, K., Hirata, Y., Majima, T, Kawamura, S., Asada, Y. a. Miyake, J. (1990) The photoreaction unit in Rhodopseudomonas viridis. Plant Cell Physiol. 31, 951-60.

Genji, T. et al. (2010) Efficient production and purification of functional bacteriorhodopsin with a  wheat-germ cell-free system and a combination of Fos-choline and CHAPS detergents. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 400, 638-42.

Solubilization and Characterization of Various Proteins/Protein Complexes

Helmke, S.M. a. Howard, B.D. (1987) Fractionation and reconstitution of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump solubilized and stabilized by CHAPS/lipid micelles. Membr. Biochem. 7, 1-22.

Jacobs, E., Fuchte, K. a. Bredt, W. (1988) Isolation of the adherence protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by fractionated solubilization and size exclusion chromatography. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 369, 1295-9.

Weiner, J.S. a. Rudy, B. (1988) Effects of detergent on the binding of solubilized sodium channels to immobilized wheat germ agglutinin: structural implications. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 944, 521-6.

Okano, T., Fukada, Y., Artamonov, I.D. a. Yoshizawa, T. (1989) Purification of cone visual pigments from chicken retina. Biochemistry 28, 8848-56.

Dhugga, K.S. and Ray, P.M. (1991) Isoelectric Focusing of plant plasma membrane proteins. Plant Physiol. 95, 1302-5.

Dover, L.G. a. Ratledge, C. (1996) Identification of a 29 kDa protein in the envelope of Mycobacterium smegmatis as a putative ferri-exochelin receptor. Microbiology 142, 1521-30

Heginbotham, L. et al. (1998) Functional reconstitution of a prokaryotic K+ channel. J. General Physiol. 111, 741-9.

Liu, R. et al. (2009) Characterization of fluorescent sterol binding to purified human NPC1. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 1840-52.

Ramya, R. et al. (2011) Expression and solubilization of insect cell.based rabies virus glycoprotein and assessment of its immunogenicity and protective efficiacy in mice. Cil. Vaccine Immunol. 18, 1675-9.

Immunological Determination Procedures

Leblond, F.A., Talbot, B.G., Lauzon, I. a. LeBel, D. (1989) A competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of pancreatic GP-2 glycoprotein. J. Immunol. Methods 124, 71-5.

Chromatographic and electrophoretic Separations

Cavinato, A.G., Macleod, R.M. a. Ahmed, M.S. (1988) A non-denaturing gel electrophoresis system for the purification of membrane bound proteins. Prep. Biochem. 18, 205-16.

Hochstrasser, D.F., Harrington, M.G., Hochstrasser, A.C., Miller, M.J. a. Merril, C.R. (1988) Methods for increasing the resolution of two-dimensional protein electrophoresis. Anal. Biochem. 173, 424-35.

Wetlaufer, D.B. (1988) Reversible and irreversible denaturation of proteins in chromatographic systems. Makromol. Chem., Makromol. Symp. 17 (Int. Symp. Affinity Chromatogr. Interfacial Makromol. Interact., 1987), 17-28.

Buckley, J.J. a. Wetlaufer, D.B. (1989) Use of the surfactant 3-(3-cholamidopropyI)-dimethyl-ammoniopropane sulfonate in hydrophobic interaction chromatography of proteins. J. Chromatogr. 464, 61-71.

Bonfils, C. a. Combalbert, J. (1990) Resolution of rabbit liver cytochrome P450 3b and 3c (P450 IIC3 and IIIA4) from microsomal membrane by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 11, 182-6.

Liu, R. et al. (2009) Characterization of fluorescent sterol binding to purified human NPC1. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 1840-52.

Further Applications

Matuo, Y., Nishi, N., Muguruma, Y., Yoshitake, Y., Masuda, Y., Nishikawa, K. a. Wada, F. (1988) Stabilization of fibroblast growth factors by a non-cytotoxic zwitterionic detergent, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1- propane sulfonate (CHAPS). In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. 24, 477-80.

Lasic, D.D., Martin, F.J., Neugebauer, J.M. a. Kratohvil, J.P. (1989) Phospholipid vesicles from mixed micelles of egg yolk lecithin and a zwitterionic detergent (CHAPS). J. Colloid Interface Sci. 133, 539-44.

Banerjee, P., Buse, J.T. a. Dawson, G. (1990) Asymmetric extraction of membrane lipids by CHAPS. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1044, 305-14.

Mairhofer, M. et al. (2002) Stomatin is a major lipid.raft component of platelet α  granules. Blood 100, 897-904

Schuck, S. et al. (2003) Resistance of cell membranes to different detergents. PNAS 100, 5795-800.

Garner, A.E. et al. (2008) Visualization of detergent solubilization of membranes: implications for the isolation of rafts. Biophys. J. 94, 1326-40.


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